A chemical substance that is relatively free of impurities.
To suck up. The penetration of a solid substance by a liquid as by osmotic, capillary, solvent or chemical action.
An unexpected event generally resulting in injury, loss of property, or disruption of service.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. An organization of professionals in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health programs. ACGIH develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits for chemical substances and physical agents (see TLV). (6500 Glenway Ave., Bldg. D 7, Cincinnati, OH 45211;  (6617881).
An inorganic or organic compound that (1) reacts with metals to yield hydrogen; (2) reacts with a base to form a salt; (3) dissociates in water to yield hydrogen or hydronium ions; (4) has a pH of less than 7.0; and (5) neutralizes bases or alkaline medica. All acids contain hydrogen and turn litmus paper red. They are corrosive to human tissue and are to be handled with care. See also Base; pH.
A condition of decreased alkalinity of the blood and tissues marked by sickly sweet breath, headache, nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances; usually the result of excessive acid production. Tissues and CNS functions are disturbed.
Irritating and bitter.
A quantitative limit of a chemical, biological, or radiological agent at which actions are taken to prevent or reduce exposure or contact.
The ingredient of a product that actually does what the product is designed to do. The remaining ingredients may be “inert”.
A dose that is delivered to the body in a single event or in a short period of time.
Acute Health Effect
An adverse effect on a human or animal body, with severe symptoms developing rapidly and coming quickly to a crisis.
The death of animals immediately or within 14 days after a single dose of or exposure to a toxic substance.
The adverse (acute) effects resulting from a single dose of or exposure to a material. Ordinarily used to denote effects observed in experimental animals.
To collect gas or liquid molecules on the surface of another material.
A fine aerial (in air or other gas) suspension of liquid (mist, fog) or solid (dust, fume, smoke) particles sufficiently small in size to be stable. See also smoke; fog; mist.
Any substance, force, radiation, organism, or influence that affects the body. The effects may be beneficial or injurious.
Acronym for as low as reasonably achievable.
Broadly, any compound having highly basic properties. Alkalis are hydroxides of an alkali metal and belong to group IA of the periodic table (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr). Ammonium salts may also be called an alkaline. Alkalis are caustic. Their high concentration of OH anions in solution destroys tissue by abstracting fluids or by corrosive deoxidation. Treat alkali burns by quickly washing the afflicted area with large amounts of water. Common commercial alkalies are sodium carbonate (soda ash), NaOH, lye, potash, caustic soda, KOH, water glass, and bicarbonate of soda. See also Acid; pH.
Loss of hair.
Usual or surrounding conditions.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
Loss of sensitivity.
Loss of sensation or feeling.
A compound derived from another compound (as an acid) by removing the elements that compose water (hydrogen and oxygen).
“Without water”. Describes a substance in which no water molecules are present in the form of a hydrate or as water of crystallization.
Loss of appetite.
Loss of the sense of smell.
A lack of oxygen from inspired air (literally, “without oxygen”). See also Hypoxia.
American National Standards Institute. A privately funded, voluntary membership organization that identifies industrial and public need for national consenous standards and coordinates their development. Many ANSI standards relate to safe design/ performance of equipment and safe practices or procedure. (1430 Broadway, New York City, NY 10018;  642
A remedy to relieve, prevent or counteract the effects of a poison. Eliminating the poison, neutralizing it, or absorbing it are effective.
Absence or defective excretion or urine.
American Petroleum Institute. A voluntary membership organization whose committees publish recommended practices for their industry. (1801 K Street, NW. Washington, DC 22037;  682
Transient cessation of breathing.
The physical state of a material; powder, gas or liquid. If there is a difference between the appearance of the material and that listed on the MSDS, contact your supervisor.
AOTX, Aquatic Toxicity
The adverse effects on marine life that results from their being exposed to a toxic substance.
Describes a water
based solution or suspension. Frequently describes a gaseous compound dissolved in water.
A saturated water bearing formation of permeable rock, sand, or gravel.
Local or generalized gray
blue colored impregnation of the body (skin) tissue with silver.
A manufactured item that is specifically shaped or formed with its function dependent on its shape and design. It does not release or result in exposure to a hazardous material in normal use. Articles are excluded from hazard laws unless they give off dust or fumes.
Chronic lung disease caused by inhaling airborne asbestos fibers.
Lack of oxygen and interference with the oxygenation of the blood. Can lead to unconsciousness.
A vapor or has that can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation (lack of oxygen). Most simple asphyxiants are harmful to the body only when they become so concentrated that they reduce (displace) the available oxygen in the air (normally 21%) to dangerous levels (18% or lower). Examples of simple asphyxiants are CO2, N2, H2, He. Others are chemical asphyxiants like carbon monoxide (CO) or cyanide, which reduce the blood’s ability to carry oxygen.
A condition that causes asphyxia or suffocation. Asphyxiation is one of the principal potential hazards of working in confined spaces.
The danger of drawing material into the lungs leading to an inflammatory response.
A disease characterized by recurrent attacks of dyspnea, wheezing, and perhaps coughing caused by spasmodic contraction of the bronchioles in the lungs.
American Society for Testing and Materials. A voluntary membership organization whose members devise consensus standards for materials characterization and use. (1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103;  299
Neither causing nor exhibiting symptoms.
A loss of muscular coordination.
Pressure measurement. One atm = 14.7 lbs./sq. in. The pressure exerted by the air at sea level that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high (about 30 in), expressed as 760 mm Hg. One tom = 1 mm Hg.
A wasting or diminution in the size (function) of tissue, organs, or entire body caused by lack of use.
The minimum temperature to which a substance (usually in an enclosure must be heated without application of a flame or spark to cause that substance to ignite. Materials should not be heated to greater than 80% of this temperature.
Lewisite. A name for the drug dimercaprol, a treatment for toxic inhalations.
A substance that liberates OH anions when dissolved in water, receives a hydrogenation from a strong acid to form a weaker acid, and gives up two electrons to an acid. Bases react with acids to form salts and water. Bases have a pH > 7 and turn litmus paper blue. They may be corrosive to human tissue and are to be handled with care. See also Acid, pH.
An arbitrary scale of specific gravities devised by the French chemist Antoine Baume and used to determine specific gravities and in the graduation of hydrometers. The degree graduations are of equal length. For liquids heavier than water: sp gr = 145/(145
N); for liquids lighter than water: sp gr = 140/(130+N), where N = Be at 60F.
clotting mechanism effects.
BEI, Biological Exposure Indexes
Procedures to determine the amount of a material absorbed into the human body by measuring it or its metabolic products in tissue, fluid, or exhaled air.
An organic material’s capacity for decomposition as a result of attack by microorganisms. Sewage
treatment routines are based on this property. Phosphates and chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT) are not biodegradable.
Periodic examination of body substances, such as blood or urine, to determine the extent of hazardous material absorption as opposed to mere exposure.
The total amount of a toxic material that a person has ingested or inhaled from all sources over time. e.g., lead can be inhaled from gasoline engine exhaust and ingested from drinking water channeled through lead glazed on dishes, or flakes from painted surfaces, as well as from a variety of industrial operations.
BP. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid becomes a vapor; i.e., the temperature at which the upward pressure of the molecules escaping from the surface equals the downward pressure of the atmosphere. Flammable materials with low BP’s generally present special fire hazards. e.g., butane, BP = 31F, gasoline, BP = 100F. Sometimes range of temperature will be given.
A safety practice where two objects (tanks, cylinders, etc.) are interconnected with clamps and bare wire. This equalizes the electrical potential between the objects and helps prevent static sparks that could ignite flammable materials. See also Grounding.
Intestinal rumbling caused by the movement of gas.
A slow heartbeat with pulse rate below 60/min.
Inflammation of the bronchial tubes in the lungs.
British thermal unit; the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of H2O 1F at 39.2F, its temperature of maximum density. See also Calorie.
A substance that reduces the change in hydrogen ion concentration (pH) that otherwise would be produced by adding acids and bases to a solution.
A trademark for synthetic rubber and rubber
like materials such as Buna
N (Nitrile) or Buna
C or Ca
Indicates continuous exposure when used with toxicological data; e.g.,“LD50 > 5g/kg, 24 H
C” means continuous exposure for 24 hours. C is also used by OSHA to designate ceiling exposure limit. See also Ceiling Limit; TLV.
C degrees Centigrade
Zero C (32F) equals the freezing point of water. One hundred C (212F) equals the boiling point of water. Always include the degrees symbol and the temperature scale. See also F.
Clean Air Act. Public Law PL 91
604, 40 CFR 50
80. EPA has jurisdiction. Effective December 31, 1970, and significantly amended several times. The regulatory vehicle that sets and monitors airborne pollution hazardous to public health and natural resources. The EPA sets the national ambient air
quality standards. Enforcement and issuance of discharge permits are carried out by the states and are called state implementation plans.
A standard unit of heat. A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1g water 1C. See below Btu.
A material that has either been found to cause cancer in humans or to cause cancer in animals and therefore is considered capable of causing cancer in humans. Findings are based on the feeding of large quantities of a material to test animals or by the application of concentrated solutions to animals’ skin. A material is considered to be a carcinogen if (1) it has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (LARC) and found to be a carcinogen or potential carcinogen (2) it is listed as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen in the Annual Report on Carcinogens, published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) latest edition; (3) it is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or (4) if one positive study has been published.
A malignant tumor or cancer; a new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate other cells and give rise to metastases. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the U.S. The NTP reports that one
thirds of cancers are associated with our environment.
CAS Registration Number, CAS, CAS RN
An assigned number used to identify a material. CAS stands for Chemical Abstracts Service, an organization that indexes information published in Chemical Abstracts by the American Chemical Society and provides index guides by which information about particular substances may be located in the abstracts. CAS numbers identify specific chemicals and are assigned sequentially. The numbers have no chemical significance. The CAS number is useful because it is a concise, unique means of material identification.
A substance that modifies a chemical reaction without being consumed. It speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy without itself being consumed by the reaction.
A loss of transparency of the crystalline lens of the eye or its capsule.
Closed cup. Used to test flash points.
Ceiling Limit C
The concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. “An employee’s exposure (to a hazardous material) shall at no time exceed ceiling value” (OSHA). See also TLV
1/100 meter. One m = 39 in.
A cgs unit of the measure of viscosity equal to 1/100 poise. The viscosity of water at 20C is almost 1 centipoise.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Superfund Law, Public Law PL 96
510, found at 40 CFR 300. The EPA has jurisdiction. Enacted December 11, 1980, and amended thereafter, CERCLA provides the identification and the cleanup of the hazardous materials that have been released over the land and into the air, waterways, and groundwater. It covers areas affected by newly released materials and older leaking or abandoned dumpsites. Report releases of hazardous materials to the National Response Center, (800) 424
8802. CERCLA established the superfund, a trust fund to help pay for the cleanup sites where hazardous materials have been released. The EPA has authority to collect the cleanup costs from those who release the waste material. Cleanup funds come from fines and penalties, from taxes on chemical/petrochemical feed stocks, and the U.S. Treasury Department. A separate fund collects taxes on active disposal sites to finance their monitoring after they are closed. CERCLA is a result of the serious problems that arose from the release of hazardous materials at the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, NY, in August 1978.
Code of Federal Regulations. A collection of the regulations established by law. Contact the agency that issued the regulation for details, interpretations, etc. Copies are sold by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; (202) 783
A chemical compound capable of forming multiple chemical bonds to a metal ion. Used to treat metal poisoning.
Chemical Cartridge Respirator
A respirator using various chemical substances to purify inhaled air of certain contaminative gases and vapors. Typically effective for concentrations no more than 10 times the TLV of the contaminant if it has warning properties (odor or irritation) below the TLV.
A group of single elements or compounds with a common general name
e.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) are of the ketone family; acrolein, furfural, and acetaldehyde are of the aldehyde family.
Gives the number and kind of atoms that comprise a molecule of a material. The chemical formula of water is H2O
each molecule of water is made up of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 of oxygen.
The scientific designation of a chemical or a name that will clearly identify the chemical for hazard evaluation purposes.
Inflammation of the lungs caused by accumulation of fluids due to chemical irritation.
The ability of a material to chemically change. Undesirable and dangerous effects such as heat, explosions, or the production of noxious substances can result.
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center
Emission of light during a noncombustible chemical reaction.
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center. Established in Washington, DC, by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) to provide emergency information on materials involved in transportation accidents. Twenty
hour number: (800) 424
9300. In Washington, DC, Alaska, and Hawaii (202) 483
like eruption caused by excessive contact with certain compounds.
Low doses repeatedly received by the body over a long period of time.
Chronic Health Effect
An adverse effect on a human or animal body with symptoms that develop slowly over a long period of time or that recur frequently. See also Acute Health Effect.
Adverse (chronic) effects resulting from repeated doses of or exposures to hazardous materials.
Clean Water Act
Federal law enacted to regulate/reduce water pollution. CWA is administered by EPA.
Chemical Manufacturers Association. See CHEMTREC
Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, odorless, flammable and very toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon. It is also a byproduct of many chemical processes. A chemical asphylant; it reduces the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. Hemoglobin absorbs CO two hundred times more readily than it does oxygen.
Carbon dioxide is a heavy, colorless gas that is produced by the combustion and decomposition of organic substances and as a byproduct of many chemical processes. CO2 will not burn and is relatively nontoxic.
Cleveland Open Cup is flash point test method.
A term used by NFPA, DOT, and others to classify certain liquids that will burn, on the basis of flash points. Both NFPA and DOT generally define “combustible liquids” as having a flash point of 100F (37.8C) or higher but below 200F (93.3C) Also see “flammable.” Non
liquid substances such as wood and paper are classified as “ordinary combustibles” by NFPA.
Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100 degrees F (37.8 C), but below 200F (93.3C), except any mixture having components with flash points of 200F (93.3C) or higher, the total volume of which makes up ninety
nine (99) percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
Any means used to identify a chemical other than its chemical name (e.g., code name, code number, trade name, brand name, or generic name). See Generic.
A gas mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (psi) at 70F (21.1C); or
A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130F (54.4C) regardless of the pressure at 70F (21.1C); or
A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100F (37.8C) as determined by ASTM D
The relative amount of a substance when combined or mixed with other substances. Examples: 2
ppm hydrogen sulfide in air, or a 50 percent caustic solution.
Conditions to Avoid
Conditions encountered during handling or storage that could cause a substance to become unstable.
Any area that has limited openings for entry and exit that would make escape difficult in an emergency, has a lack of ventilation, contains known and potential hazards, and is not intended nor designated for continuous human occupancy.
Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the eyeballs.
Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, or the like that contains a hazardous chemical. For purposes of MSDS or HCS, pipes or piping systems are not considered to be containers.
A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alteration in, living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. For example, a chemical is considered to be corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described by the DOT in Appendix A to 49 CFR Part 173. It destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the site of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term shall not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.
An unwanted and non
Consumer Products Safety Commission has responsibility for regulating hazardous materials when they appear in consumer goods. For CPSC purposes, hazards are defined in the Hazardous Substances Act and the Poison Prevention Act of 1970.
Cleansing of a diseased surface.
See “Dermal Toxicity”.
Clean Water Act was enacted to regulate/reduce water pollution. It is administered by EPA.
A sac containing a liquid. Most cysts are harmless.
The scientific study of cells.
Breakdown of a material or substance (by heat, chemical reaction, electrolysis, decay, or other processes) into parts or elements or simpler compounds.
The process of removing contaminants from individuals and equipment.
Degree of Hazard
A relative measure of how much harm a substance can do.
The mass (weight) per unit volume of a substance. For example, lead is much more dense then aluminum.
A substance that reduces a bodily functional activity or an instinctive desire, such as appetite.
Relating to the skin.
Adverse effects resulting from skin exposure to a substance. Ordinarily used to denote effects in experimental animals.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (replaced U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare) NIOSH and the Public Service (PHS) are part of DHHS.
A barrier constructed to control or confine hazardous substances and prevent them from entering sewers, ditches, streams, or other flowing waters.
Airflow designed to dilute contaminants to acceptable levels. Also, see general ventilation or exhaust.
A portable device that measures and displays, in a short time period, the concentration of a contaminant in the environment.
U.S. Department of Labor. OSHA and MSHA are part of DOL.
U.S. Department of Transportation regulates transportation of chemicals and other substances.
A powdered fire
extinguishing agent usually composed of sodium bicarbonate, etc.
An abnormality of development.
A sense of difficulty in breathing; shortness of breath.
An abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in body tissue.
A nonmetallic substance that conducts an electric current in solution by the movement of ions rather than electrons.
Obstruction of a blood vessel by a transported clot, a mass of bacteria, etc.
An organism in the early stages of development before birth. In humans, the developing child is considered an embryo from conception to the end of the second month of pregnancy.
A material harmful to a developing embryo.
A sudden and unexpected event calling for immediate remedial action.
An agent that induces vomiting.
An irreversibly diseased ling condition in which the alveolar walls have lost their resiliency, resulting in an excessive reduction in the lungs’ capacity.
Engineering control systems reduce potential hazards by isolating the worker from the hazard or by removing the hazard from the work environment. Methods include ventilation, isolation, and enclosure.
The measurement or prediction of the transport, dispersion, and final location of a released hazardous substance.
Incidents involving the release (or potential release) of hazardous materials into the environment which require immediate remedial action.
A condition capable of posing an unreasonable risk to air, water, or soil quality, and to plants or wildlife.
Samples that are considered to contain no contaminants or low concentrations of contaminants.
(Canada) Environmental Protection Act. Federal legislation, administered by Environment Canada, designed to protect the environment.
(United States) Environmental Protection Agency. A federal agency with environmental protection regulatory and enforcement authority. Administers the CAA, CWA, RCRA, TSCA, and other Federal environmental laws.
The study of disease in a general population. Determination of the incidence (rate of occurrence) and distribution of a particular disease (by age, sex or occupation) may provide information about the causes of the disease.
Excessive flow of tears.
The study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of living and work environments.
Abnormally red skin from capillary congestion.
All of the factors that contribute to the cause of a disease or abnormal condition; a branch of medical science concerning with the causes and origins of disease.
The rate at which a material will vaporize from the liquid or solid state when compared to the rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of materials. The known material is usually normal butyl acetate, with a vaporization rate designated as 1.0. Vaporization rates of other solvents or materials are then classified as (1) FAST evaporating if greater than 3.0; (2) MEDIUM evaporating if 0.8; (3) SLOW evaporating if less than 0.8.
A material that produces a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, has, and heat when subjected to abrupt shock, pressure, or high temperature.
See Flammable Limits.
The concentration in air of a chemical in the workplace that is thought to be safe. This means that most workers can be exposed at the given levels or lower without harmful effects. The exposure limits in common use are (1) TLV
TWA (threshold limit value
weighted average); (2) STEL (short
term exposure value); (3) C (ceiling value).
Extinguishing Media, Agents
The type of fire extinguisher or extinguishing method appropriate for use on a specific material. Some chemicals react violently in the presence of water, so other methods such as the use of foam or CO2 should be followed.
Degrees Fahrenheit. 32F (0C) equals the freezing point of water. 212F (100C) equals the boiling point of water. Degrees Fahrenheit equals (C * 1.8) +32. Degrees centigrade equals (Fahrenheit –32) * 5/9. Always include the degree symbol and the temperature scale. See also C.
Fiber per cubic centimeter of air. Fibers are longer than 5 mg and have an aspect ratio equal to or greater than 3 to 1 per cm3. (ACGIH).
The formation of fibrous tissue, as in a reparative or reactive process to particulates, in excess of amounts normally present in the lung
tissue walls. This reduces the oxygen and CO2 exchange efficiency.
Finely crushed or powdered material or fibers; especially, those smaller than the average in a mix of various sizes.
Fire Diamond (NFPA HR) The fire diamond has four classes of entries by position:
Health Hazard (Blue)
0 = Ordinary combustible hazards in a fire
1 = Slightly hazardous
2 = Hazardous
3 = Extreme danger
4 = Deadly
Position B Flammability (Red)
0 = Will not burn
1 = Will ignite if preheated
2 = Will ignite if moderately heated
3 = Will ignite at most ambient conditions
4 = Burns readily at ambient conditions
Position C Reactivity (Yellow)
0 = Stable and not reactive with water
1 = Unstable if heated
2 = Violent chemical change
3 = Shock and heat may detonate
4 = May detonate
OXY = Oxidizer
ALKALI = Alkali
W= Use no water
The lowest temperatures at which a liquid will produce sufficient vapor to flash near its surface and continue to burn. Usually 10 to 30 degrees Celsius higher than the flash point.
The first trained personnel to arrive on the scene of a hazardous material incident. Usually officials from local emergency services, firefighters, and police.
Describes any solid, liquid, vapor, or has that will ignite easily and burn rapidly. See also Combustible.
A product is considered a flammable aerosol if it is packaged in an aerosol container and can release a flammable material.
A gas that at ambient temperature and pressure forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13% by volume or less; or a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure forms a range of flammable mixtures with air greater than 12% by volume, regardless of the lower limit.
Flammable Limits (Flammability Limits, Explosive Limits)
The minimum and maximum concentrations of a flammable gas or vapor between which ignition can occur. Concentrations below the lower flammable limit (LFL) are too lean to burn, while concentrations above the flammable limit (UFL) are too rich. All concentrations between LFL and UFL are in the flammable range, and special precautions are needed to prevent ignition or explosion.
A liquid that gives off vapors that can be readily ignited at room temperature. Defined by the NFPA and DOT as a liquid with a flash point below 100F (38C).
A solid that will ignite readily and continue to burn of is liable to cause fires under ordinary conditions or during transportation through friction retained heat from manufacturing or processing and that burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious transportation hazard. See also Combustible.
Occurs when a trail of flammable material is ignited by distant spark or ignition source. The flame then travels along the trail of the material back to its source.
Flash Point, FP
The lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface or within a vessel. FP is determined by tests in cups.
fighting material consisting of small bubbles of air, water and concentrating agents. Chemically, the air in the bubbles is suspended in the fluid. The foam clings to vertical and horizontal surfaces and flows freely over burning materials. Foam will put out a fire by blanketing it, excluding air and blocking the escape of volatile vapor. Its flowing properties will resist mechanical interruption and reseal the burning material.
A visible suspension of fine droplets in a gas; e.g., water in air.
See Molecular Weight.
See Flash Point.
The Federal Register. A daily publication that lists and discusses the regulations of Federal agencies.
The temperature at which a material changes its physical state from liquid to solid. This information is important because a frozen material may burst its container or the hazards could change.
Full Protective Clothing”
Fully protective gear that keeps gases, vapor, liquids, and solids (dusts, etc.) from any contact with skin and prevents then from being inhales or ingested. Includes SCBA (self
contained breathing apparatus).
From the Latin for smoke. An airborne dispersion consisting of minute solid particles arising from the heating of a solid (such as molten metal). This heating is often accompanied by a chemical reaction when the particles react with oxygen to form an oxide.
g or gm
Death of tissue combined with putrefaction.
A formless fluid that occupies the space of its enclosure. It can settle to the bottom or top of an enclosure when mixed with other materials. It can be changed to its liquid or solid state only by increased pressure and decreased temperature.
Washing out of the stomach using a tube and fluids.
Inflammation of the stomach using a tube and fluids.
The stomach and intestine as a functional unit.
Also known as dilution ventilation. The removal of contaminated air and is replacement with clean air from the general workplace area as opposed to local ventilation, which is specific air changing in the immediate air of a contamination source. An example of local ventilation is laboratory fume hood.
A designation or identification such as a code name, code number, trade name, or brand name used to identify a chemical by other than its chemical name.
See Gastrointestinal Tract.
Inflammation of the gums.
Generally recognized as safe. A phrase applied to food additives approved by the FDA.
A safety practice to conduct any electrical charge to the ground, preventing sparks that could ignite a flammable material. See also Bonding.
Water in a saturated zone or formation beneath the surface of land or water.
A circumstance or condition that can do harm. Hazards are categorized into four groups: biological, chemical, radiation, and physical.
A series of nine descriptive terms that have been established by the IN Committee of Experts to categorize the hazardous nature of chemical, physical, and biological materials. These categories are: flammable liquids, explosives, gases, oxidizers, radioactive materials, corrosives, flammable solids, poisonous and infectious substances, and dangerous substances.
Hazard Communication Rule
See OSH Act. Requires chemical manufacturers and importers to assess the hazards associated with the materials in their workplace (29 CFR 1910.1200). Material safety data sheets, labeling, and training are all the result of this law. You are urged to acquire and become familiar with these regulations. Contact your local OSHA office.
Capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health and safety (Department of Transportation). Capable of doing harm.
A breaking down or separation of a substance into its constituent parts, elements, or into simpler compounds accompanied by the release of heat, gas, or hazardous materials.
Hazardous Decomposition Products
Some materials give off hazardous materials when they decompose or burn. For example, vinyl releases poisonous chlorine and hydrochloric acid fumes when burned.
A substance or material which has been determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, and which has been so designated. (Department of Transportation)
Samples that are considered to contain high concentrations of contaminants.
1) A material and its mixtures or solutions that is identified by the letter “E” in Column (1) of the Hazardous Materials Table, CFR 49, Sec. 172.101, when offered for transportation in one package, or in one transport vehicle if not packaged, and when the quantity of the material therein equals or exceeds the reportable quantity. 2) Any substance designated pursuant to Section 311 (b) (2) (A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (8) any element, compound, mixture, solution, or substance designated pursuant to Section 102 of this Act, (C) any hazardous waste having the characteristics identified under or listed pursuant to Section 333001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (but not including any waste the regulation of which under the Solid Waste Disposal Act has been suspended by Act of Congress), (D) any toxic pollutant listed under Section 307 (a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (E) any hazardous air pollutant listed under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, and (F) any, imminently hazardous chemical substance or mixture with respect to which the Administrator has taken action pursuant to Section 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The term does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance under subparagraphs (A) through (F) of this paragraph, and the term does not include natural gas, natural gas liquids, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas usable for fuel (of mixtures of natural gas and such synthetic gas).
Any material that is subject to the hazardous waste manifest requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency specified in the CFR, Title 40, Part 262 or would be subject to these requirements in the absence of an interim authorization to the State under Title 40, CFR, Part 123, Subpart F.
Hazardous Waste Number
An identification number assigned by the EPA, per the RCRA Law, to identify and track wastes. (40 CFR 261.11, 40 CFR 302.2).
the presence of blood in the urine.
Separation of the hemoglobin from red blood corpuscles.
efficiency particulate air
purifying respirator equipment.
Pertaining to the liver.
The hazardous materials identification system, developed by NPCA to provide information on health hazards, reactivity, and flammability that are encountered in the workplace. A number is assigned a material indicating the degree of hazard, from 0 for the least up to 4 for the most severe. Letters are used to designate personal protective equipment. See also NPCA.
From the Greek for “water loving”. Describing materials having large molecules that tend to absorb and retain water, causing them to sell and frequently to become gels. See also Deliquescent.
Readily absorbing moisture from the air. See also Deliquescent.
Congestion of blood in a body part.
igniting upon contact of its components without a spark or external aid; especially rocket fuel or propellant that consists of combinations of fuels and oxidizers.
Calcium deficiency of the blood.
insufficient oxygen, especially applied to body cells. See also Anoxia.
International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Immediately dangerous to life and health. Used to determine selection of a respirator. The maximum concentration from which one could escape within 30 minutes without any escape
impairing symptoms or any irreversible health effects. Also, conditions that are IDLH and conditions that would lead to an exposure to materials that are IDLH.
The lowest temperature at which a combustible material will catch on fire in air and will continue to burn independently of the source of heat when heated.
IMDG, IMO Classification
the IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) code, assigns divisions, classes and codes to materials in shipment. These are explosives, flammables, oxidizers, poisons, corrosives, and other regulated substances. The code also assigns labeling and the DOT UN/NA and PINs.
Actions undertaken to prevent or mitigate immediate and significant risk of harm to human life or health or to the environment. As set forth in the National Contingency Plan, these actions shall be terminated after $1 million has been obligated or six months have elapsed from the date of initial response.
Describes a material that does not allow another substance to penetrate or pass through it.
The release or potential release of a hazardous substance into the environment.
The process of identifying the substance(s) involved in an incident, determining exposure pathways and projection the effect it will have on people, property, wildlife and plants, and the disruption of services.
The process of assessing the impact released or potentially released substances pose to public health and the environment.
Describes materials that could cause dangerous reactions and the release of energy from direct contact with one another.
Anything other than the active ingredient in a product; not having active properties. Inert ingredients may be hazardous. e.g., the freon carrier has in aerosol can products such as shaving cream and hair spray is toxic.
Capable of being easily set on fire and continuing to burn, especially violently.
A series of reactions produced in tissue by an irritant, injury, or infection. Characterized by redness and swelling caused by an influx of blood and fluids.
Knowledge acquired concerning the conditions or circumstances particular to an incident.
The taking in of a substance through the mouth for digestion.
the breathing in of a substance in the form of a gas, vapor, fume, mist or dust.
a material that is added to another to prevent an unwanted reaction; e.g., polymerization
Materials that do not contain carbon bonded to hydrogen, as do hydrocarbons (organics), which are characterized as having carbon and hydrogen atoms in chain and ring structures. Some simple carbon compounds are considered to be inorganic. (i.e., carbides, COx, carbonates CS2).
Same as investigation.
Information obtained from existing records or documentation, placards, labels, signs, special configuration of containers, visual observations, technical records, eyewitnesses, and others.
Scarring of the lungs.
A formal examination or study.
Primary irritation dose.
Inflammation of both the iris and the ciliary body of the eye.
Irritant effects. Any irritant effect on the skin, eye or mucous membrane.
A material that is not a corrosive, that causes a reversible inflammatory effects on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact as a function of concentration or duration of exposure.
Chemical compounds that have the same molecular weight and atomic composition but differ in molecular structure; e.g., n
penate and 2
Yellowish discoloration of tissue (skin), whites of eyes (sclera), and bodily fluids with bile pigment (bilirubin) caused by any of several pathological conditions that interrupt the liver’s normal production and discharge of bile.
The condition marked by excessive production or accumulation of ketone bodies in the body caused disturbed carbohydrate metabolism.
Any written, printed, or graphic sign or symbol displayed on or affixed to containers or hazardous chemicals. A label should contain identity of hazardous material, appropriate hazard warnings, and name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party.
Secretion and discharge of tears.
A material that produces tears.
Disposal of trash and waste products at a controlled location that is then sealed and buried under earth. Increasingly seen as a less than satisfactory disposal method because of the long term environmental impact of waste materials in the ground.
The time that elapses between exposure and the first manifestations of disease or illness. Latency periods can range from minutes to decades, depending on the hazardous material.
A washing of a hollow organ, such as the stomach, using a tube and fluids.
Lethal concentration 50, median lethal concentration. The concentration of a material in air that on the basis of laboratory tests (respiratory route) is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animals when administered as a single exposure (usually 1 or 4 hours). The LC50 is expressed as parts of material per million parts of air by volume (ppm) for gases and vapors, as micrograms of material per liter of air (mg/m3) for dusts and mists, as well as for gases and vapors.
Milliliter. A metric unit of capacity equal to 1 cubic centimeter or about 1/16 in3.
Mild irritation effects.
Millimeters of mercury. A measure of pressure. See also atm.
Mucous membrane effects.
Moderate irritation effects.
The quantity of a chemical substance that has a weight in a unit (usually grams) numerically equal to the molecular weight. It is that amount of a material that has 6.023 * 1023 molecules (Avogadro’s number. For example, NaCl has a formula weight of 58.5 (Na, 23, and Chlorine, 35.5). One mole of NaCl is 58.5g.
The mass in grams per mole of a substance. See also Mole.
the process of measuring certain environmental parameters on a real
time basis for spatial and time variations. For example, air monitoring may be conducted with direct
reading instruments to indicate relative changes in air contaminant concentrations at various times.
Millions of particles per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light
field techniques (OSHA). Usually expressed in mg/m3.
Material safety data sheet. OSHA has established guidelines for the descriptive data that should be concisely provided on a data sheet to serve as the basis for written hazard
communication programs. The thrust of the law is to have those who make, distribute, and use hazardous materials be responsible for effective communication.
Mine Safety and Health Administration
A Federal agency within the US Department of Labor that devises and promulgates mandatory safety and health in mines.
Muscular skeletal effects.
secreting membrane lining the hollow organs of the body; i.e., nose, mouth, stomach, intestine, bronchial tubes, and urinary tract.
A material that induces genetic changes (mutations) in the DNA of chromosomes. Chromosomes are the “blueprints” of life within individual cells.
See Molecular Weight.
Normal. Used as a prefix in chemical names signifying a straight
chain structure; i.e., no branches.
Not applicable, not available; not determined.
See DOT Identification Numbers.
Stupor or unconsciousness produced by narcotics or other materials.
National Contingency Plan
Policies and procedures that the Federal Government follows in implementing responses to hazardous substances.
National Fire Protection Association
National Toxicology Program
A tendency to vomit; a feeling of sickness at the stomach.
National Cancer Institute. A part of the National Institutes of Health that studies cancer.
Localized death of tissue.
Neoplastic effects; production of tumors.
A new or abnormal tissue growth that is uncontrollable and progressive.
Poisonous to the kidney.
Inflammation of the nerves.
To render chemically harmless; to return the pH to the neutral level of 7 adding acid (base) to the basic (acidic) compound.
National Fire Protection Association. An international voluntary membership organization to promote/improve fire protection and establish safeguards against loss of life and property by fire. Best known for the National Fire Codes, sixteen volumes of standards, recommended practices, and manuals developed (and periodically updated) by NFPA committees. NFPA 740M is the code for showing hazards of materials using the familiar diamond
shaped label with appropriate numbers or symbols (NFPA hazard rating). See also Fire Diamond.
Nanogram. One billionth, 10
9, of a gram.
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. The agency of Public Health Service that tests and certifies respiratory and air
sampling devices. It recommends exposure limits for substances and assists OSHA in investigations and research.
Not otherwise classified.
No effect level.
Incapable of being easily ignited or burning with extreme rapidity when lighted. Also, a DOT class for any compressed gas other then a flammable one.
Not otherwise specified.
Oxides of nitrogen (NO1, NO2, and NO2O4). They react with the moisture in the respiratory tract to produce acids that corrode and irritate tissue, causing congestion and pulmonary edema. Symptoms of acute exposure can develop over 6 to 24 hours. Chronic exposure to low levels can cause irritation, cough, headache, and tooth corrosion. Exposure to 5 to 50 ppm of NO2 can cause slowly evolving pulmonary edema.
NPCA, National Paint and Coatings Association
The trade association of manufacturers that developed the HMIS labeling system.
National Toxicology Program. Federal activity overseen by the Department of Health and Human Services with resources from National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Center for Disease Control. Its goals are to develop tests useful for public health regulations of toxic chemicals, to develop toxicological profiles of materials, to foster testing of materials and to communicate the results for use by others.
Dusts do not produce significant organic disease or toxic effect from “reasonable” concentrations and exposures. TLV of 10 mg/m3 or 30 mppcf.
Spastic, involuntary motion of eyeballs.
See Action Level.
Occupational Safety and Health Act
See OSH Act.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The lowest concentration of a material’s vapor (or a gas) in air that can be detected by odor. Frequently expressed as a percentage of a panel of test individuals.
Occupational Exposure Limit. See also Exposure Limits.
Presence outside of the worksite.
Scanty or low volume of urine.
Presence within the boundaries of the worksite.
Impervious to light rays.
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and other elements with chain or ring structures.
Other regulated material. DOT hazard classification of a particular hazardous material to label it in transport. ORM
A: materials with an anesthetic, irritating, noxious, toxic, or other property whose leakage can cause extreme discomfort to transportation personnel. ORM
B: materials (including solids wet with water) that can cause damage to a vehicle if they leak. ORM
E: materials that are not in any other hazard classification but are subject to DOT regulations.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Part of the US Department of Labor. The regulatory and enforcement agency for safety and health in most US industrial sectors.
OSHA Flammable/Combustible Liquid Classification
(29 CFR 1910.106). Flammable/Combustible liquid is standard classification used to identify the risks of fire or explosion associated with a liquid. Flammable liquids (with a flash point below 100F [38C] are class I liquids and are divided into the following classes: class IA
flash point below 73F(22.8C), boiling point at or above 100F(38C) and class IC
flash point at or above 73F(22.8C), boiling point below 100F(38C). Combustible liquids (with a flash point at or above 100F) are divided into two classes: class II, with flash point at or above 100F(38C) and below 140F(60C), except any mixture having components with flash points of 200F(93.3C), or higher, the volume of which makes up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture; and class IIIB, with flash point at or above 200F(93.3C).
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Effective April 28, 1971. Public Law 91
596. Found at 29CFR 1910, 1915, 1918, and 1926. OSHA jurisdiction. The regulatory vehicle is to ensure the safety and health of workers in firms larger than ten employees. Its goal is to set standards of safety that will prevent injury and illness among the workers. Regulating employee exposure and informing employees of the dangers of materials are key factors.
Literally, oxidation is a reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen provided by an oxidizer or oxidizing agent. An oxidation reaction may occur even when oxygen is not present. An oxidation reaction is always accompanied by an offsetting (balancing) reduction reaction in which (1) oxygen is removed from a compound; or (2) atoms, molecules, or ions gain electrons. See Reducing Agent.
Dermatitis caused by contact with oxides under poor, personal hygienist conditions.
The DOT defines an oxidizer of oxidizing material as a substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion (oxidation) of organic matter. Chlorate (CIO), permanganate (MnO), and nitrate (NO) compounds are examples of oxidizers. Note that they all contain oxygen (O).
A chemical or substance that brings out an oxidation reaction. The agent may (1) provide the oxygen to the substance being oxidized (in which case the agent has to be oxygen or contain oxygen or contain oxygen); or (2) it may receive electrons being transferred from the substance undergoing oxidation. (Chlorine is a good oxidizing agent for electron
transfer purposes, even though it contains no oxygen). See also Reducing Agent.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Components in organic materials that may pose a risk of cancer.
Irregular, rapid heartbeat.
A sensation of prickling, tingling, or creeping on the skin that has no objective cause.
Small, separate pieces of an airborne material. Dusts, fumes, smokes, mists, and fogs are examples. Generally, anything that is not a fiber and has no aspect ratio of 3 to 1.
The quotient of the solubility of compound in oil divided by its solubility in water. See also Coefficient of Water/Oil Distribution.
Pathways of Dispersion
The mode (water, groundwater, soil and air) by which a chemical moves through the environment.
Permissible exposure limit. Established by OSHA. This may be expressed as a time
weighted average (TWA) limit or as a ceiling exposure limit that legally must never be exceeded instantaneously even if the TWA exposure limit is not violated. OSHA PEL’s have the force of law. Note that ACGIH TLV’s and NIOSH REL’s are recommended exposure limits that may or may not be enacted into law by OSHA.
Martens Closed Cup or Closed Tester
Percent volatile by volume. The percentage of a liquid or solid (by volume) that will evaporate at an ambient temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius) unless some other temperature is stated. E.g. gasoline and paint thinner (mineral spirits) are 100% volatile; their individual evaporation rates vary, but over a period of time each will evaporate completely. This physical characteristic reflects the potential for releasing harmful vapor into the air.
Permissible Exposure Limit
A substance which resists biodegradation and/or chemical oxidation when released into the environment and tends to accumulate on land, in air, in water, or in organic matter.
Precautionary measures taken to maintain good health when exposed to potentially harmful materials. This includes keeping hands, other parts of the body, work clothing, and equipment free of a material’s residue, as well as not eating, drinking, applying make
up, or using toilet facilities where it is in use.
Personal Protective Equipment
The value that represents the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. The number is the logarithm to the base 10 of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. Pure water has a pH of 7. The substance in an aqueous solution will ionize to various extents giving different concentrations of H+ ions and of 1 to 3 (HCI, = 1). The strongest bases have an excess of OH
ions and a pH of 11 to 13 (NaOH, = 12). The pH scale is logarithmic and the intervals are exponential, is the progression of values represents far greater concentrations than one would suspect (i.e., pH of 3
10,000 to 1 ratio of H+ ions, while a pH of 4
1,000 to 1 ratio, a pH of 5
100 to 1 ratio.
Thick mucous from the respiratory passage.
Intolerance to light.
The condition of a material: i.e., solid, liquid, or gas, at room temperature.
Product identification number. A four
digit number, prefaced by UN or NA, used in Canada under the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulation for use by emergency personnel to identify a material in the event of an accident.
The removal of released hazardous substances from the environment within a non
term, time period. Under CERCLA: Actions intended to minimize increases in exposure such that time and cost commitments are limited to 6 months and/or one million dollars.
Martens closed cup. One of several types of apparatus for determining flash points. The Pensky
Martens closed tester (ASTM D93
79) is used for liquids that have a viscosity of 45 SUS (Saybolt universal seconds) or more at 100F(38C), a flash point of 200F(93.6C) or higher, contain suspended solids, or form surface films.
A respiratory tract and lung condition caused by inhalation and retention of irritant mineral or metallic particles. An X
ray can detect changes, which include fibrosis.
Peripheral nervous system effects.
Poison, Class A
A DOT term for an extremely dangerous poison such as poisonous gas or liquid of such a nature that a very small amount of has or vapor of the liquid mixed with air is dangerous to life. e.g., phosgene, cyanogen, hydrocyanic acid, and nitrogen peroxide.
Poison, Class B
A DOT term for liquid, solid, paste, or semisolid substances other than class A poisons or irritating materials that are known or presumed on the basis of animal tests to be so toxic to man as to afford a hazard to health during transportation.
Poison Control Center
Provides medical information on a 24
hour basis for accidents involving ingestion of potentially poisonous materials. Call your area’s largest hospital to find the one nearest to you.
A substance or mixture which after release into the environment and upon exposure to any organism will or may reasonably be anticipated to cause adverse effects in such organisms or their offspring.
An array of mechanisms by which a substance may migrate outside the immediate location of the release or discharge of the substance. For example, pollution of groundwater by the migration of hazardous wastes from a landfill.
A chemical reaction in which one or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules. A hazardous polymerization is such a reaction that takes place at a rate that releases large amounts of energy that can cause fires or explosions or burst containers. Materials that can polymerize usually contain inhibitors that can delay the reactions.
The temperature at which a liquid ceases or begins to flow or at which it congeals.
Oxides of phosphorus.
Parts per billion.
Personal protective equipment. Devices or clothing worn to help isolate a worker from direct exposure to hazardous materials. Examples include gloves and respirators.
Parts per million. “Parts of vapor or has per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25C and 1 torr pressure” (ACGIH).
Parts per trillion.
In front of the heart, stomach.
Product Identification Number
Physical exhaustion, incapacitation.
Presence of protein in the urine.
Pounds per square inch absolute.
acting on the mind.
Pulmonary systems effects. Effects on respiration and respiratory pathology.
Fluid in the lungs.
To clean, clear or empty of material.
A chemical decomposition or breaking apart of molecules produced by heating.
Describes materials that ignite spontaneously in air below 130F (54C). Occasionally friction will ignite them.
A person who through education, experience, or professional accreditation is competent to make judgements concerning a particular subject matter. A Certified Industrial Hygienist may be a qualified individual for preparing a site safety plan.
Red blood cell effects.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, PL 94
580. Found at 40 CFR 240
271. EPA has jurisdiction. Enacted November 21, 1976, and amended since. RCRA’s major emphasis is the control of hazardous waste disposal.It controls all solid
waste disposals and encourages recycling and alternative energy sources. In 1984, the USA generated 265 million tons of hazardous wastes.
RCRA Hazardous Waste
A material designated by RCRA as hazardous waste and assigned a number to be used in record keeping and reporting compliance (e.g., D003, F001, U169).
A chemical substance or mixture that will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self
reactive due to shock, pressure, or temperature. Includes materials or mixtures that fall within any of these categories: (1) explosive material
a substance or mixture that causes sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden adverse conditions; (2) organic peroxide
an organic compound that contains the bivalent
0 structure, which can be considered a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide, in which one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical; (3) pressure
a substance or mixture that may spontaneously polymerize with an increase in pressure unless protected by the addition of an inhibitor or by refrigeration or other thermal control; may decompose to release has in its container; or comprise the contents of a self
pressurized container; (4) water
a substance or mixture that reacts with water to release heat or flammable, toxic gas.
Describes a substance’s tendency to undergo chemical reaction either by itself or with other materials with the release of energy. Undesirable effects such as pressure buildup; temperature increase; or formation of noxious, toxic, or corrosive byproducts may occur because of the substance’s reactivity to heating, burning, direct contact with other materials, or other conditions in use or in storage. A solid waste that exhibits a “characteristic of reactivity,” as defined y RCRA, may be regulated (by the EPA) as a hazardous waste and assigned the number D03.
Recommended Exposure Limit
In a reduction reaction (which always occurs simultaneously with an oxidation reaction), the reducing agent is the chemical or substance that (1) combines with oxygen or (2) loses electrons to the reaction. See also Oxidation; Oxidizing Agent.
A substance or material that is subject to regulations set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Transportation, or any other federal agency.
The NIOSH REL (Recommended Exposure Limit) is the highest allowable airborne concentration that is not expected to injure a worker. It may be expressed as a ceiling limit or as a time
weighted average (TWA), usually for 10
hour work shifts.
As in the National Contingency Plan, responses to releases on the National Priority List that are consistent with permanent remedy to prevent or mitigate the migration of a release of hazardous substances into the environment.
As set forth in the Clean Water Act, the minimum amount (pounds or kilograms) of a substance that may be discharged in a 24
hour period that requires notification of the appropriate government agency.
Reproductive Health Hazard
Any agent that has a harmful effect on the adult male or female reproductive system or the developing fetus or child. Such hazards affect people in several ways, including loss of sexual drive, mental disorders, impotence, infertility, sterility, mutagenic effects on germ cells, teratogenic effects on the fetus, and transplacental carcinogenesis.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
The breathing system, including the lungs and air passages (trachea or windpipe, larynx, mouth and nose), as well as the associated system of nerves and circulatory supply.
Activities taken to recognize, evaluate, and control an incident.
Same as Response Activities.
The probability that unwanted event (harm) will occur.
The use of factual base to define the health effects of exposure of individuals or populations to hazardous materials and situations.
The process of weighing policy alternatives and selecting the most appropriate regulatory action integrating the results of risk assessment with engineering data and with social and economic concerns to reach a decision.
Routes of Entry
To do bodily damage, a material must come in contact with the body. The method of bodily contact is called the route of entry. The routes of entry are (1) absorption (eye or skin contact); (2) ingestion; and (3) inhalation.
Routes of Exposure
The manner in which a chemical contaminant enters the body. e.g., oral, inhalation, cutaneous, and parenteral routes of entry.
Reportable Quantity. The amount of a material that when spilled must be reported to the DOT.
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, published by NIOSH. Presents basic toxicity data on thousands of materials. Its objective is to identify “all known toxic substances” and to reference the original studies.
Freedom from man
material environmental interactions that result in injury or illness.
The collection of a representative portion of the universe. Example: the collection of a water sample from a contaminated stream.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. Signed into law October 17, 1986. Title III of SARA is known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right
Know Act of 1986. It is a revision and extension of CERCLA. SARA is intended to encourage and support local and state emergency planning efforts. It provides citizens and local governments with information about potential chemical hazards in their communities. SARA calls for facilities that store hazardous materials to provide officials and citizens with date on the types (flammables, corrosives, etc.); amounts on hand (daily, yearly); and their specific locations. Facilities are to prepare and submit inventory lists, MSDS’s, and tier 1 and 2 inventory forms. The disaster in Bhopal, India in 1987, added impetus to the passage of the law.
contained breathing apparatus; self
contained breathing apparatus with full piece face piece.
See SETA, SETAFLASH Closed Tester.
The tough, white, fibrous covering the eyeball.
Those personnel required to assist or relieve first responders at a hazardous material incident due to their specialized knowledge, equipment, or experience. These can include State environmental protection or health officials, commercial response and clean
up companies, and appropriate industry representatives.
A state of immune
response reaction in which further exposure elicits an immune or allergic response. A person previously exposed to a certain material is more sensitive when he experiences further contact with it.
A material that on first exposure causes little or no reaction in man or test animals, but which on repeated exposure my cause a marked response not necessarily limited or the contact site. Skin sensitization is the most common form. Respiratory sensitization to a few chemicals is also known to occur.
SETA, SETAFLASH Closed Tester
Used to measure flash points in liquids in the 32 to 230 degrees Fahrenheit range. (ASTM D 327
A relative term used to describe the degree to which hazardous material releases can cause adverse effects to human health and the environment.
Pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of iron particles. Also, tissue pigmentation caused by contact with iron.
A condition of massive fibrosis of the lungs causing shortness of breath because of prolonged inhalation of silica dusts.
Site Safety Plan
specific safety criteria that establishes requirements for protecting the health and safety of responders during all activities conducted at an incident.
Notation indicating possible significant contribution to overall exposure to a material by way of absorption through the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes by direct or airborne contact.
Skin effects; e.g., erythema, rash, and sensitization of skin.
A pourable mixture of solid and liquid.
Dry particles and droplets (usually carbon or soot) generated by incomplete combustion of an organic material combined with and suspended in the gases from combustion.
Solution. A uniformly dispersed mixture. Solutions are composed of a solvent (water or another fluid, for example) and a dissolved substance, called the solute.
Solubility in Water
A term expressing the percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature. Solubility information is useful in determining cleanup methods for spills and fire
extinguishing methods for a material. Solubility is expressed as negligible, less than 0.1 percent; slight, 0.1 to 1.0 percent; complete, soluble in all proportions. Best units of measure are g/l. Reported values can be converted: mg/l + 1000 = g/l; g/l; g/100ml *10 = g/l; g/100cc *10 = g/l; g/gH2O *1000 = g/l.
From the Latin word for “set free” or “loosen”. A material that can dissolve (reduce to molecular form) other materials form a uniform mixture. Water can be a solvent.
Fine particles, usually black, formed by combustion (complete or incomplete) that consists chiefly of carbon. Soot gives smoke its color.
Oxides of sulfur where x equals the number of oxygen atoms.
An involuntary, convulsive muscular contraction.
An expression of the density (or heaviness) of a material. Ratio of the mass of a body to the mass of an equal volume of water at 4 degrees Celsius or other specified temperature. If a volume of material weighs 8 grams, and an equal volume of water weighs 10 grams, the material is said to have specific gravity of 0.8 (8 + 10 = .8). Insoluble materials with specific gravity of greater than 1.0 will sink (or go to the bottom) in water. Most (but not all) flammable liquids have a specific gravity of less than 1.0 and, if not soluble, will float on water, which is an important consideration for fire suppression and spill cleanup.
An expression of the ability of a material to remain unchanged. For MSDS purposes a material is stable if it remains in the same form under expected and degrees Fahrenheit or shock from being dropped that may cause instability (dangerous change) are stated on the MSDS. See also Unstable.
term exposure limit; ACGIH terminology. See also TLV
term exposure value. See also TLV
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.
Partial or nearly complete unconsciousness.
Beneath the skin.
To change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase. Dry ice exhibits sublimation.
See Z list.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
See SARA; See also CERCLA.
SUS, Saybolt Universal Seconds
A unit measure of viscosity determined by the number of seconds required for an oil heated to 130F (lighter oils) and 20F (heavier oils) to flow through a standard orifice and fill a 60
An interaction of materials to give a greater result than either material alone. For example, both smoking and exposure to asbestos can cause lung disease; however, if an individual smokes and is exposed to asbestos simultaneously, the danger of lung disease increases dramatically.
Alternative names by which a material may be known.
Systemic effects. Effects on the metabolism and excretory functions.
Excessively rapid heartbeat, with a pulse rate above 100.
Increased rate of respiration.
Tag Closed Cup
Tag Open Cup
Target Organ Effects
Chemically caused effects from exposure to a material on specifically listed organs and systems such as the liver, kidneys, nervous system, lungs, skin and eyes.
TCC or TCT
Tag (Tagliabue) closed cup or tag closed tester. One of several types of apparatus for determining flash points. The Tag closed tester, per ASTM D56079, is flash point below 200F (93.4C). Liquids should not have suspended solids or form surface films.
Toxic concentration low. The lowest concentration of a substance in air to which humans or animals have been exposed for any given period of time that has produced any toxic effect in humans or produced a tumorigenic or reproductive effect in animals or humans.
Toxic dose level.
The lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route other than inhalation over any given period of time and reported to produce any toxic effect in humans or to produce any toxic effect in humans or to produce tumorigenic or reproductive effects in animals or humans.
Physical defects in a developing embryo caused by an agent or material.
Toxic effects. Used to introduce the principal organ system affected as reported or its pathology. See also RTECS.
Those personnel required to help the first or second responders handle special situations or to conduct the cleanup, removal, and associated activities. These can include federal environmental protection and health officials, other federal agencies, commercial response and cleanup companies, and appropriate industry representatives.
Threshold Limit Value
A ringing sound in the ears.
Median tolerance limit. Designates the concentration of a toxic material at which 50% of the test organisms, usually aquatic organisms, survive. TL90, for example, may be required by a conservation authority where pollution must be limited to protect the fish.
Threshold limit value. A term used by ACGIH to express the airborne concentration of a material to which nearly all workers can be exposed day after day without adverse effects. “Workers” means healthy individuals. The young, old, ill, or naturally susceptible will have lower tolerances and need to take additional precautions. ACGIH expresses TLV’s in three ways: TLV
TWA, the allowable time
weighted average concentration for a normal 8
hour workday or 40
hour week; TLV
term exposure limit or maximum concentration for a continuous exposure period of 15 minutes (within a maximum of four such periods per day, with at least 60 minutes between exposure periods, and provided that the daily TLV
TWA is not exceeded); ceiling (C) the concentration that should not be exceeded at any time.
C. The ceiling exposure limit or the concentration that should not be exceeded even instantaneously. The ACGIH publishes a book annually that explains and lists TLV’s in TLV’s: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances in the Work Environment Adopted by ACGIH.
cup test method.
mm Hg pressure.
Describes the ability of a material to injure biological tissue. Having (1) an LD50 of 50 to 500 mg/kg when administered orally to albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g each; (2) an LD50 of 200 to 1000 mg/kg when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours to the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing 2 to 3 kg each; or (3) an LC50 of 200 to 2000 ppm (gas or vapor) or 2 to 20 mg/l (mist, fume or dust) when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour to albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g each. See also Acute Toxicity.
The ability of a substance to produce injury once it reaches a susceptible site in or on the body.
the study of the nature, effects, and detection of poisons in living organisms. Also substances that are otherwise harmless but prove toxic under particular conditions. The basic assumption of toxicology is that there is a relationship among the dose (amount), the concentration at the affected site, and the resulting effects.
Any chemical or material that (1) has evidence of an acute or chronic health hazard; and (2) is listed in the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), provided that the substance causes human toxicity at any dose level; causes cancer or reproductive effects in animals at any dose level; has a median lethal dose (LD50) of less than 500 mg per kg of body weight when administered orally to rats; has a median LD50 of less than 1000 mg per kg of body weight when administered by continuous contact to the bare skin of albino rabbits; or has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of less than 2000 ppm by volume of gas or vapor, or less than 20 mg per 1 of mist, fume, or dust when administered to albino rats.
Toxic Substance Control Act
A name given to a product by the manufacturer or supplier. It is usually not the chemical name, and the same or similar products can be marketed under different names by different companies.
Confidential information (formula, process, device, or compilation of data) that gives the owner an advantage over competitors. Manufacturers may choose to withhold data of a proprietary nature from the MSDS. Typically, this would be the ingredient of a formulated product. OSHA permits this provided that (1) the trade secret claim can be substantiated, (2) the MSDS indicates that data is being withheld, and (3) the properties and health effects are included. State laws vary on this practice; some states require a trade secret registration number to be assigned to a material. There are procedures to obtain limited trade secret disclosure in emergency situations.
Toxic Substances Control Act. Public Law PL 94
469. Found in 40 CFR 700
799. EPA has jurisdiction. Effective January 1, 1977. Controls the exposure to and use of raw industrial chemicals not subject to other laws. Chemicals are to be evaluated prior to use and can be controlled based on risk. The act provides for a listing of all chemicals that are to be evaluated prior to manufacture or use in the U.S.
weighted average. See also TLV
Qualifying toxic dose.
See Upper Explosive Limit, Upper Flammable Limit.
See Upper Explosive Limit, Upper Flammable Limit.
See DOT Identification Numbers; PIN
Tending toward decomposition or other unwanted chemical change during normal handling or storage. An unstable chemical in its pure state, or as commonly produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self
reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature. See also Stability.
Upper Explosive Limit, Upper Flammable Limit
UEL, UFL. The highest concentration of a material in air that will produce an explosion in fire or will ignite when it contacts an ignition source (high heat, electric arc, spark, or flame). A higher concentration of the material in a smaller percentage of concentration of air may be too rich to be ignited. See also Flammable Limits.
Nettle rash; hives; elevated; itching, white patches.
The gaseous state of a material suspended in air that would be a liquid or solid under ordinary conditions.
The weight of a vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of air; and expression of density of the vapor or gas calculated as the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to the average molecular weight of the gas to the average molecular weight of air, which is 29. The mw of gas/29=vapor density. Materials lighter than air have vapor densities of less than 1.0. Materials heavier than air have vapor densities greater than 1.0. All vapors and gases will mix with air, but the lighter materials will tend to rise and dissipate (unless confined). Heavier vapors and gases are likely to concentrate in low or enclosed places (along or under floors; in sumps, sewers, manholes, trenches, and ditches) creating fire, explosion, or health hazards.
The pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its own container. When quality control tests are performed on products, the test temperature is usually 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) and the vapor pressure is expressed as pounds per square inch (psig or psia). However, vapor pressures reported on MSDS’s are in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) at 68 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius), unless stated otherwise. Three facts are important to remember: (1) Vapor pressure of a substance at 100 degrees Fahrenheit will always be higher than the vapor pressure of the substance at 68 degrees Fahrenheit. (2) Vapor pressures reported on MSDS’s in mm Hg are usually very low pressures: 760 mm Hg is equivalent to 14.7 pounds per square inch. (3) The lower the boiling point of a substance, the higher its vapor pressure. Vapor pressures are useful (with evaporation rates) in learning how quickly a material becomes airborne within the workplace and thus how quickly a worker can be exposed to it.
A feeling of revolving in space; dizziness, giddiness.
Measurement of the flow properties of material expressed as its resistance to flow. Unit of measurement and temperature are included.
Volatile organic components.
Measure of a material’s tendency to vaporize or evaporate at ambient conditions.
See Vapor Pressure.
Describes a material that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.
White blood cell effects.
Written directives that specifically describe all work activities that are to take place at a work site.
Zinc Fume Fever, ZFF
Caused by inhalation of zinc oxide fume characterized by flu
like symptoms, a metallic taste in the mouth, coughing, weakness, fatigue, muscular pain, and nausea, followed by fever and chills. Symptoms occur 4 to 12 hours after exposure.
OSHA’s Toxic and Hazardous Substances Tables Z
2, and Z
3 of air contaminants, found in 29 CFR 1910.1000. These tables record PEL’s, TWA’s and ceiling concentrations for the materials listed. Any materials found in these tables are considered to be hazardous.